Singapore Math

Problem solving is the central focus of the Singapore Mathematics Curriculum Framework.

(Image Source: Math in Focus®)

Assessments in Math in Focus® measure three levels of knowledge:

  • Type I items assess students’ grasp of concepts, skills, and procedures.
  • Type II items assess students’ ability to demonstrate mathematical reasoning through statements, arguments, or justifications.
  • Type III items assess students’ ability to demonstrate their understanding of problems with real-world contexts.

(Image Source: Math in Focus®)

The CPA Approach

This highly effective framework introduces concepts in a tangible way and progresses to increasing levels of abstraction.


  • Classroom activity
  • Tangible items
  • Manipulatives


  • Students are shown a visual representation of the problem
    • Picture
    • Number bond
    • Bar model


  • Students are then shown an equation of the problem
    • In the upper grades, students will derive the formula or equation themselves

Course Outline